What is science diplomacy?
Science diplomacy is an umbrella term that is used to cover all formal or informal research-based, technical or engineering exchanges among nations. The science diplomacy helps the nations to connect with each other even when their political relations are not good.
Basically, science diplomacy is used for the scientific coalition among the countries to address common issues like climate change and to keep encouraging the flow of technologies across the globe. Usually, the nations get connected by signing a treaty that states certain terms and conditions which need to be followed by each and every participant.
After the cold world war ended, the process of globalization has created the hope that certain issues that are common in every region can be addressed globally with the transmission of goods and technologies all over the world. Under science diplomacy, the social problems like food, poverty, water, energy, and health can be dealt with effectively in a collaboration of the countries and the group which is concerned about it.
Originally, scientific diplomacy is a term that meant how a state represents itself diplomatically on an international platform by using their scientific knowledge and interests. It aims to build constructive international coalitions.
How Can Scientific Diplomacy Help In Dealing With Climate Change Issues?
We all are tolerating the deteriorated air quality and worse environment situations of all time. This deterioration doesn’t happen overnight but the filth generated by human activities is the real cause for falling the level of the environment to such level.
Now, the situation got worsened to such a level that no individual nation has sufficient resources and the technologies to deal with the issue. So, scientific diplomacy is the lone and effective way where nations can take collective initiatives to save the earth and to save the lives of human beings.
Proofs That Shows a Drastic Change In Climate
- Hockey stick graph
- Melting polar caps
- Global sea level rose
- Ocean acidification
Hockey Stick Graph
Hockey stick graph is the average mean temperature record of up to 5000 or 2000 years. According to this, the temperature of the world was relatively constant from 500 years and the hike was seen in the 20th century.
This indicates that the increasing involvement of human activity in nature leads to the harming of nature. When humans started to expand and they used natural resources and started to manipulative their importance according to their need then this resulted in a worsening of the environment to such low levels.
The average temperature of the earthy was observed to increase around0.90 degrees as compared to the late 19th century. The increased carbon dioxide production and other man-made emissions in the atmosphere can be assigned as some reasons behind the increase in the temperature of the earth.
It should be noted that most warming happened in the last 35 years and the warmest temperature was recorded in 2010.
Melting Polar Caps
A major fall down in the temperature of poles has been recorded since. It has been observed that the arctic and Greenland ice sheets have decreased significantly in masses as when compared to earlier times.
- The NASA reports states that Greenland witnessed an average loss of 286 million tons of ice per year and Antarctica tolerated the loss of around 198 million tons in the same year.
- In the last decade, the rate of loss of ice in Antarctica got tripled up.
Increase in global sea level
When the temperature increases, it leads to a certain chemical change in the environment too. Like the volume of the water also increases but these changes can only be observed when it happens on a bigger scale. The reason is the increase in water level is the melting of ice from the mountains and the from the poles.
- In the last century, the average global increase in the sea level was recorded up to 8 inches.
- Now, the rate of increase in the global sea level has been recorded double than that of last year.
The acidity in the ocean is the result of human interaction with the chemicals and their direct exposure to the water bodies. Since the industrial revolution, the increase of acidity on the ocean water surface was recorded by about 30 percent.
- The quantity of the carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the ocean is recorded as 2 billion tons per year.
History of India in dealing with climate change using science diplomacy
Science and technology are playing a crucial role in dealing and achieving the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs). Science diplomacy’s importance is increasing day by day in contemporary times.
India has tried to deal with the deteriorating environmental conditions and took initiatives by being a part of these coalitions;
- The global innovation and technology alliance
- The India-led International Solar Alliance (ISA),
- The Global Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)
Global innovation and technology alliance (GITA)
The Global Innovation and Technology Alliance (GITA) was started by India just a few years back. This is the industry-led coalition with the government being the equal partner in it. The alliance goals to supporting the innovation to the last phase of it to produce the high-end, cost-effective products that can be used both as in international and domestic markets. This alliance has provided a base for other frontline techno-economic alliances.
India-led international solar alliance (ISA)
It has over more than 79 sunshine signatories and around 121 prospective countries as its partners. This is another example of modernized science diplomacy on the current times.\
The goal of this alliance is creating a platform for solar resource-rich countries to share and improve their assets with the co-operation of each other. Such a platform can really give productive results by providing the necessary help to the countries to increase their solar resources in an equitable, safe, affordable and sustainable manner.
The Global Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)
This coalition was recently announced in the UN climate action summit in New York. This is again another example of an international coalition initiated by India in consultation with 35 countries across the globe. The collaborations aim to develop and support the members in building climate and disaster-resilient infrastructure. It has the motive to make the nations bearable to any disaster and climate change.
The CDRI supports the participants by providing the necessary technical support and capacity development knowledge and research management, advocacy and partnerships.
It goals to identify the potential risk and assessment, urban planning and risk management and disaster risk management.